Topic 3036 1998
Nobel Prizes Awarded
Beginning in 1901, the Nobel Foundation has presented annual awards
in Stockholm, Sweden, in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, and
Literature, on December 10, the anniversary of the founder's death.
Since 1969 a prize in Economics has also been awarded in Stockholm.
On the same day, the Peace prize is awarded in Oslo, Norway. Following
the awards presentation is a banquet in honor of the laureates.
The prizes were established by the will of Alfred Nobel, the Swedish-born
inventor of dynamite and international industrialist, after his death in
The following is a list of the prizes by category (all cash amounts
represent exchange rate of Swedish crowns to US dollars on Dec. 10):
PEACE (comes with $US 943,000 cash award)
-- for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern
Ireland, leading to the 1998 Good Friday peace agreement involving the
British government, republicans and unionists.
John Hume (Northern Ireland, UK) M.P., Leader of the Social Democratic
and Labour Party
David Trimble (Northern Ireland, UK) M.P., Leader of the Ulster Unionist
LITERATURE (comes with $US 978,000 cash award)
The Portuguese writer José Saramago will be 76 in November. A writer
of prose, from a working-class background, his first major success did
not come until he was 60. Since then he has attracted a great deal of attention
and frequently been translated. Today he lives in the Canary Islands.
"who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually
enables us once again to apprehend an elusory[sic] reality"
PHYSIOLOGY OR MEDICINE (comes with $US 978,000 cash award)
--for their discoveries concerning "nitric oxide as a signalling molecule
in the cardiovascular system", breakthroughs with applications in heart
problem, atherosclerosis, shock, and impotence.
Robert F. Furchgott, Brooklyn, NY (USA), State University of New York
Louis J. Ignarro, Los Angeles, CA (USA), University of California (Los
Ferid Murad, Houston, TX (USA), University of Texas Medical School
PHYSICS(comes with $US 978,000 cash award)
--for discovering that electrons acting together in strong magnetic fields
can form new types of "particles", with charges that are fractions of electron
charges. The electrons form a kind of "quantum fluid," related to those
found in superconductivity and liquid helium, leading to a breakthrough
in the understanding of the inner structure and dynamics of matter.
Professor Robert B. Laughlin, Stanford University, California, USA
Professor Horst L. Störmer, Columbia University, New York and Lucent
Technologies' Bell Labs, New Jersey, USA
Professor Daniel C. Tsui, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey,
CHEMISTRY (comes with $US 978,000 cash award)
--for pioneering contributions in developing methods that can be used for
theoretical studies of the properties of molecules and the chemical processes
in which they are involved. Specifically to Walter Kohn for his development
of the density-functional theory and to John Pople for his development
of computational methods in quantum chemistry.
Walter Kohn, University of California at Santa Barbara, USA and
John A. Pople, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA (British
ECONOMIC SCIENCES (comes with $US 963,000 cash award)
--for his contributions to welfare economics, including the axiomatic theory
of social choice, definitions of welfare and poverty indices, and empirical
studies of famine.
Amartya Sen (India) Trinity College, Cambridge, UK