WHAT: disputes on the hand-over of two Libyan suspects in bombing
Pan Am flight 103 in 1988
WHO: leaders of Libya (Moammar Gadhafi), U.S. (Cliton), Britain (Tony Blair) and U.N. (Kofi Annan)
WHERE: Libya, U.S., Britain, Scotland and Netherland
Background & Summary
Pan Am Flight 103 from London to New York exploded in mid-air over the Scottish town of Lockerbie in December 1988. All 259 people on board were killed as well as 11 people on the ground.
An international investigation led to charges against two alleged Libyan intelligence agents of putting a bomb on the plane. Libya, U.S. and Britain debated where to seek justice for 2 suspects. Libya wants the suspects to be tried in a neutral country, a demand rejected by both London and Washington. Libya has been subjected to UN sanctions since 1992 for refusing to hand them over. Under the international pressure, Libya sent two suspects for trial in the Netherlands in this April.
The explosion event of Pan Am Flight 103 in December, 1988 is inclusive and influential, which mainly contains crash investigations, the reports of the victims' families and disputes on settling trial for suspects. However, this topic is basically limited to the disputes on seeking justice place for two Libyan suspects between two sides: Libya & U.S.-Britain. This debate lasts almost 8 years, and physically ends with the delivery of two suspects to Netherlands to begin a trial.
On topic stories include: the divergence on the trial place between two sides; the refusing of handing over two suspects in Libya; the sanction imposed by U.N.; other countries' (e.g. South Africa & Egypt) efforts to promoting agreement; Libya' surrendering and the hand-over of two suspects. The concerns of the victim's families, such as when the trial definitely takes place, are the direct results of this dispute and should be on topic. Other immediate influence on Libya after handing over suspects is also on topic, such as Libya celebrated its flight freedom after sending two suspects.
The investigations on the crash itself, the reactions of U.S. or Britain to terrorism after this event are NOT on topic, e.g. Clinton signed Iran-Libya sanctions act to respond to increased concerns about terrorism activities such as Pan Am Flight and former Iranian hostages in August, 1996.
12/21/1988 - Pan Am flight 103 from Frankfurt to New York, via London, explodes over the Scottish town of Lockerbie. All 259 passengers and crew were killed, as were 11 residents of Lockerbie.
11/14/1991 - A three-year investigation concludes with the Lord Advocate, Scotland's chief law officer, obtaining a warrant for the arrest of two Libyans, Abdel Baset Ali Mohamed al-Megrahi and Al-Amin Khalifa Fhimah. The charges against them are of conspiracy, murder, and contravention of the Aviation Security Act of 1982. An indictment is also issued in the US containing similar accusations.
11/27/91 - The British, USA and French Governments issued a joint statement calling on the Libyan Government to surrender all the accused for trial.
12/08/91 - Libya says it will try the men itself.
01/21/92 - UN Security Council Resolution 731 orders Libya to surrender the Lockerbies suspects.
03/23/92 - Libya offers to hand suspects over to the Arab League.
03/31/92 - UN Security Council Resolution 748 gives Libyans 15 days to hand over the suspects or face a worldwide ban on air travel and arms sales and the closure of Libyan Arab Airline offices.
04/15/92 - UN embargo takes effect.
04/30/92 - Libyan leader Colonel Gadaffi says he will not hand the men over but they are free to surrender.
11/11/93 - UN Security Council Resolution 883 repeats the earlier demands and threatens to tighten sanctions.
12/01/93 - Sanctions imposed, including the freezing of Libyan assets in foreign banks and an embargo on oil industry-related equipment.
01/29/94 - Libya maintains its refusal to hand over two suspects.
10/13/97 - Lockerbie bombing hearings opened at the Hague. Libya, U.S. and Britain debated where to seek justice for 2 suspects. Libya wants the suspects to be tried in a neutral country, a demand rejected by both London and Washington.
Support for a neutral trial comes from South Africa, the Organization of African Unity, the Arab League, the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the Non-aligned movement as well as some of the victims' relatives.
2/27/98 - The World Court has ruled that it has authority to settle a bitter legal dispute that has blocked the trial of two Libyans suspected of blowing up a Pan Am jumbo jet over Scotland in 1988. - The United States and Britain argue that the suspects should be tried in a Scottish or US court, but Libya insists they would not receive a fair trial in either country.
06/08/98 - The father of one of the victims of the 1988 bombing of Pan Am flight 103 says Libya has agreed to hand over two suspects for trial by a Scottish judge.
07/21/98 - Britain and the United States have dropped their insistence that two Libyans accused of the Lockerbie bombing should be tried on their territory. Two countries have decided to agree to the trial taking place under Scottish law in the Netherlands.
08/26/98 - Libya agreed to send Lockerbie suspects to Netherlands.
08/27/98 - Seeking to bring about justice in the Pan Am bombing case, the Security Council voted unanimously to suspend sanctions against Libya.
09/06/98 - Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi has said he would accept having the two suspects in the Lockerbie airliner bombing tried in the Netherlands on condition they are not handed over to either Britain or the United States.
10/29/98 - The U.N. Security Council decided to maintain sanctions on Libya, reiterating that they will be suspended only after Libya turns over two suspects in the fatal bombing of Pan Am Flight 103.
12/06/98 - Annan met Gadhafi in Tunisia and departed Libya without agreement on Pan Am bombing suspects.
12/15/98 - Libya tentatively approved plans for a trial in the Netherlands for two Libyan suspects in the 1988 bombing of a Pan Am Flight 103.
12/21/98 - Ceremonies were held on both sides of the Atlantic--the Scottish town of Lockerbie and Arlington National Cemeteron in U.S.-- to mark the 10th anniversary of the bomb attack on a Pan Am airliner. The victims' families had hoped to know by now that a trial would definitely take place. 01/06/99 - British Prime Minister Tony Blair began a four day visit to South Africa during which he expected to enlist President Nelson Mandela's help in ending a diplomatic stalemate over the 1988 Lockerbie bombing.
03/01/99 - Libya appeared to back away from its claim that the two suspects in the Lockerbie bombing case should be tried in the International Court of Justice in The Hague rather than the Scottish court agreed to in a U.N.- brokered compromise.
03/05/99 - Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi began a week long visit to Egypt for talks on the possible handover of two suspects in the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103.
04/05/99 - The two men accused of blowing up a Pan Am flight over Scotland in 1988, killing 270 people, have arrived in the Netherlands for trial before a Scottish court.
04/07/99 - Libya celebrated its newly granted freedom to fly internationally after handing over two suspects.
05/23/99 - The Sunday Times (London) reports that it has seen "clear evidence" of the personal involvement of Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi in the bombing of Pan Am 103.
07/01/99 - The United States is opposed to any lifting of the U.N. sanctions that were imposed against Libya after the bombing of Pan Am flight email@example.com Last modified: 08/10/99